Transgender people in the United States experience widespread prejudice, discrimination, violence, and other forms of
This critical review aims to integrate the literature on stigma towards transgender people in the US.
This review demonstrates that transgender stigma limits opportunities and access to resources in a number of critical
domains (e.g., employment, healthcare), persistently affecting the physical and mental health of transgender people. The
applied social ecological model employed here elucidates that transgender stigma operates at multiple levels (i.e.,
individual, interpersonal, structural) to impact health. Stigma prevention and coping interventions hold promise for
reducing stigma and its adverse health-related effects in transgender populations.
Additional research is needed to document the causal relationship between stigma and adverse health as well as the
mediators and moderators of stigma in US transgender populations. Multi-level interventions to prevent stigma towards
transgender people are warranted.
Author: Jaclyn M. White Hughto; Sari L. Reisner; John E. Pachankis